Civil law is a set of rules that governs the civil rights of citizens. Such law offers legal remedies of disputes involving contracts, property, family relations etc. Actually, we are living in a civilized society where everyone’s rights and duties are pre-defined. Everyone is bound to obey certain sets of laws for smooth running of our society’s affairs. Whenever someone deviates from its sphere of rights and duties, some sort of disorder appears. To cope with such disorders, civil law is invoked. Thus, the primary purpose of civil law is to resolve disputes and provide compensation for someone hurt by someone else’s acts or behavior.
According to the definition, civil law is a body of rules that defines and protects the private rights of citizens, offers solutions in a particular dispute and also covers specific area of law. In United States, civil law is similar as common law that depends on identical cases previously decided to determine the outcome of cases. Civil law can be divided in numerous branches, some of which are discussed hereunder:
This category of civil law deals with disputes regarding agreements between two or more parties. An example of this can be a lease agreement of an apartment where both tenant and landlord bind themselves in an agreement. The tenant uses the apartment and owner gets compensation in the shape of rent. In case of any kind of breach of any party, the dispute will be solved in light of contract law.
Tort Law is another branch of civil law which deals with personal injury caused by someone’s wrong doing to the other. Such cases are usually decided as monetary compensation to the injured person. The wrongdoer has to pay compensation to the injured person as per a settlement or a decision of the court.
This branch of civil law covers property issues, whether it is personal or real. Jewelry, animals and merchandise are tangible personal property whereas stocks, copyrights and bonds are intangible personal property. On the other hand the real property covers land and buildings. Anything under the surface of the land such as oil and minerals also fall under the category of real property.
Family Law is also a branch of civil law. Disputes regarding marriage, divorce, child custody, adoption, birth and issues affecting families. The family court gets involved with custody, dividing up property and finances, establishing child custody, child support or spousal support amongst other things, depending on the jurisdiction.
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